India is blessed with a 7,517 km of coastline, the distance 5,423 km belongs to peninsular India and 2,904 km to the Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. India is beginning to discover offshore wind energy as a premeditated energy resource to mitigate energy crisis as well as to fulfill future energy demands. The initial assessment and wind resource data collected along the coastline of Rameshwaram and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu and Gulf of Khambhat in Gujarat have shown a promising potential for the development of offshore wind power. A preliminary measurement suggests a possible potential to establish around 1 GW capacity wind farm along the coastline of Tamil Nadu and in Gujarat. The various advantages of offshore wind have been discussed by Singh M.
Facilitating Offshore Wind in India (FOWIND) project report has identified two important maritime areas to harness the offshore wind resources.
- Indian territorial waters, approximately up to 12 nautical miles (nm) from the baseline
- Beyond 12 nm and 200 nm (Exclusive Economic Zone).
The FOWIND is an association led by Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC). The other associated partners are Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and the World Institute of Sustainable Energy (WISE). National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) joined the consortium as knowledge partner. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy will play role as a nodal ministry and government entities for the development and use of Maritime zone under Exclusive Economic Zone and will also look upon overall monitoring of offshore wind energy, preparation of guidelines. The National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE), Chennai is a nodal agency and will carry out resource assessment, surveys and studies in EEZ. NIWE will also play a major role to facilitate developers in obtaining clearance and NOCs from different Ministries and Departments of concern. The initial studies and an EU funded study have indicated potential for offshore wind energy in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu coast; still it requires validation through actual measurement.
Figure 1 Offshore wind density at 50 m height
India has made progress by identifying eight zones in the coast of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Accordingly, a LiDAR based offshore measurement campaign is initiated in the Gulf of Khambhat, Off Gujarat cost. Additionally, NIWE has installed meteorological mast along the coastline for preliminary assessment on the offshore potential. Further, various agencies, like Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Service explored estimates based on the data available. The NIWE has also published an interim report showing the preliminary short-term measurement result of offshore wind in India. Based on the satellite data/analysis offshore potential need to be validated or re-checked by long term measurement to take efficient decision for identifying and notifying the zones/sub-zones as per offshore policy. The detail of the selected site at Gulf of Khambhat is tabulated below in Table 1.
Table 1 Identified Site Details
|Site||Gulf of Khambhat (Zone -B)|
|LiDAR Location||20º45’19.10” N, 71º41’10.93”E|
|Distance from coast||23 km|
|Nearest Electric substation||Ultratech 220kV|
|CRZ (as per 2011 notification)||Zone IV|
Figure 2 Photographic image of 100 m MAST and LiDAR installed at
Dhanushkodi, Tamil Nadu
The major challenges in India to develop offshore wind power are high capital cost, the data required for the calculation of wind potential of suitable sites is not available, also unavailability of bathymetric data, regulatory and policy framework.
Written By: Prof. Prem Chaurasiya